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W. N. Venables, D. M. Smith and the R Development Core Team

An Introduction to R

This introduction to R is derived from an original set of notes describing the S and S-Plus environments written by Bill Venables and David M. Smith (Insightful Corporation). We have made a number of small changes to reflect differences between the R and S programs, and expanded some of the material.

We would like to extend warm thanks to Bill Venables (and David Smith) for granting permission to distribute this modified version of the notes in this way, and for being a supporter of R from way back.

W. N. Venables, D. M. Smith and the R Development Core Team


Introduction and preliminaries

Simple manipulations; numbers and vectors

Missing values

Objects, their modes and attributes

Ordered and unordered factors

Arrays and matrices

Generalized transpose of an array

Lists and data frames

Reading data from files

Probability distributions

One- and two-sample tests

Grouping, loops and conditional execution

Writing your own functions

More advanced examples

Statistical models in R

Linear models


Nonlinear least squares and maximum likelihood models

Graphical procedures

Low-level plotting commands

Graphics parameters list

Device drivers


Appendix A A sample session

Appendix B Invoking R

Appendix C The command-line editor